ASP.NET Core Web API Authentication (Deprecated)

Sample Project

Download this sample project configured with your Auth0 API Keys.

System Requirements
  • .NET Core 1.0
Show requirements

Auth0 can sign JSON Web Tokens (JWT) using either a symmetric key (HS256) or an asymmetric key (RS256). This particular document will describe how to configure Auth0 to sign tokens using RS256.

If you want to use HS256 then please go to the Authentication using HS256 tutorial.

1. Configure JSON Web Token Signature Algorithm

To configure the JWT Signature Algorithm, go to the settings for your application in the Auth0 Dashboard, scroll down and click on Show Advanced Settings. Go to the OAuth tab and set the JsonWebToken Signature Algorithm to RS256.

Save your changes.

Configure JWT Signature Algorithm as RS256

2. Configure the JWT Middleware

You will need to add the JWT middleware to your application's middleware pipeline.

Go to the Configure method of your Startup class and add a call to UseJwtBearerAuthentication passing in the configured JwtBearerOptions. The JwtBearerOptions needs to specify your Auth0 Client ID as the Audience, and the full path to your Auth0 domain as the Authority:

public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IHostingEnvironment env, ILoggerFactory loggerFactory)
{
    var options = new JwtBearerOptions
    {
        Audience = Configuration["auth0:clientId"],
        Authority = $"https://{Configuration["auth0:domain"]}/"
    };
    app.UseJwtBearerAuthentication(options);

    app.UseMvc();
}

Signature Validation

Before we carry on, a quick word about the verification of the JWT, as the configuration above may af first glance seem very simplistic.

The JWT middleware will automatically use the Authority to verify the issuer of the JWT, and the Audience to verify the audience. These values need match the values in the token exactly, so ensure you specify the trailing backslash (/) for the Authority as this is a fairly common reason for tokens not verifying correctly.

Next it will seem as though the JWT middleware configuration above is insecure since the signature is not explicitly verified anywhere. This is however not true, as the JWT middleware will go to the /.well-known/openid-configuration endpoint at the URL specified in the Authority property to discover the JSON Web Key Set (JWK) document. It will then download the JSON Web Key which is used to subsequently verify the token.

This can be confirmed by looking and the Fiddler trace in the screenshot below:

Fiddler trace of retrieval of JWK

If someone tries to create a JWT with another key set the signature verification will fail:

Console output with incorrectly signed JWT

3. Securing an API endpoint

The JWT middleware integrates with the standard ASP.NET Core Authentication and Authorization mechanisms.

You only need to decorate your controller action with the [Authorize] attribute to secure an endpoint:

[Route("api")]
public class PingController : Controller
{
    [Authorize]
    [HttpGet]
    [Route("ping/secure")]
    public string PingSecured()
    {
        return "All good. You only get this message if you are authenticated.";
    }
}

4. Using your API

You can make calls to your API by authenticating a user using any of our Lock integrations and then using the id_token obtained during authentication and passing that in the Authorization header of requests to your API as a Bearer token.

Here is a sample RAW request:

GET /ping/secure HTTP/1.1
Host: localhost:5000
Authorization: Bearer <your token>

Or using RestSharp:

var client = new RestClient("http://localhost:5000/ping/secure");
var request = new RestRequest(Method.GET);
request.AddHeader("authorization", "Bearer <your token>");
IRestResponse response = client.Execute(request);

5. Testing your API in Postman

During development you may want to test your API with Postman.

If you make a request to the /ping/secure endpoint you will notice that the API returns an HTTP status code 401 (Unauthorized):

Unauthorized request in Postman

As mentioned in the previous step, you will need to pass along an id_token in the HTTP Authorization header. A quick and easy way to obtain an id_token is to call the /oauth/ro endpoint using the Auth0 Authentication API Explorer:

Obtain a JWT

Now you can use the id_token and pass it along in the Authorization header as a Bearer token:

Authorized request in Postman

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