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Angular

State Management in Angular Using NgRx: Pt. 2

See how it's easy to manage your Angular application's state using NgRx and learn how you can use NgRx with Auth0's SDK to handle user-related functionalities.

November 23, 2021

Angular

State Management in Angular Using NgRx: Pt. 2

See how it's easy to manage your Angular application's state using NgRx and learn how you can use NgRx with Auth0's SDK to handle user-related functionalities.

November 23, 2021

User State Management

The user store will work similarly to how the menus state management works. I won't detail how each part of the state works and focus more on the Auth0 and NgRx integration.

The starter app is using the Auth0 SDK directly and managing the roles through the RolesService, this section of the tutorial will walk you through migrating to using Auth0's SDK through NgRx and managing the roles by using selectors.

Create User State

Let's start with defining the interface for the user state object and its initial state. Open user.state.ts and add the following code πŸ‘‡

// src/app/core/state/user/user.state.ts

import { User as Auth0User } from "@auth0/auth0-spa-js";

export interface UserState {
  userDetails: Auth0User;
}

export const initialState: UserState = {
  userDetails: undefined,
};

Create a barrel export for the user directory with the following code πŸ‘‡

// src/app/core/state/user/index.ts

export * from "./user.state";

Update Core State

To access UserState from your Store, you will need to add it to your CoreState's state object. Open core.state.ts and add the following code πŸ‘‡

// src/app/core/state/core.state.ts

import { MenusState } from "./menus";
// ✨ New πŸ‘‡
import { UserState } from "./user";

export interface State {
  menus: MenusState;
  // ✨ New πŸ‘‡
  user: UserState;
}

Create User Actions

We have three user-related Actions that we need for our user Store. Login, logout, and user changed Action to keep the user details in our Store in sync with Auth0's SDK.

Since we have several user Actions that will originate from the Navbar component, you can group them under allNavbarAction to ensure you aren't reusing these Actions in a different part of the application (following the Good Action Hygiene pattern).

Because the userChangedFromAuth0SDK Action originates from Auth0's SDK, let's name the source part of the Action type as Auth0 SDK.

Open user.actions.ts and add the following code πŸ‘‡

// src/app/core/state/user/user.actions.ts

import { createAction, props } from "@ngrx/store";
import { User as Auth0User } from "@auth0/auth0-spa-js";

export const allNavbarActions = {
  loginFlowInitiated: createAction("[Navbar] Login Flow Initiated"),
  logoutFlowInitiated: createAction("[Navbar] Logout Flow Initiated"),
};

export const userChangedFromAuth0SDK = createAction(
  "[Auth0 SDK] User Changed",
  props<{ userDetails: Auth0User }>()
);

Add user.actions to the barrel export. Open index.ts and add the following code πŸ‘‡

// src/app/core/state/user/index.ts

export * from "./user.state";

// ✨ New πŸ‘‡
export * from "./user.actions";

Update Application to Use User Actions

Open nav-bar.component.ts and add the following code πŸ‘‡

// src/app/shared/components/nav-bar/nav-bar.component.ts

import { Component } from "@angular/core";
import { IconDefinition } from "@fortawesome/fontawesome-svg-core";
import { faHome, faUser, faUtensils } from "@fortawesome/free-solid-svg-icons";
import { AuthService } from "@auth0/auth0-angular";

// ✨ New πŸ‘‡
import { Store } from "@ngrx/store";
import { allNavbarActions } from "src/app/core/state/user";

export interface INavBarMenuLinkProps {
  to: string;
  icon: IconDefinition;
  label: string;
}

@Component({
  selector: "app-nav-bar",
  templateUrl: "./nav-bar.component.html",
  styleUrls: ["./nav-bar.component.scss"],
})
export class NavBarComponent {
  faUser = faUser;
  isAuthenticated$ = this.authService.isAuthenticated$;
  user$ = this.authService.user$;

  navOptions: INavBarMenuLinkProps[] = [
    { to: "/home", label: "Home", icon: faHome },
    { to: "/menu", label: "Menu", icon: faUtensils },
  ];

  constructor(
    private authService: AuthService,
    // ✨ New πŸ‘‡
    private store: Store
  ) {}

  loginWithRedirect(): void {
    // ✨ New πŸ‘‡
    this.store.dispatch(allNavbarActions.loginFlowInitiated());
  }

  logout(): void {
    // ✨ New πŸ‘‡
    this.store.dispatch(allNavbarActions.logoutFlowInitiated());
  }
}

Create User Selectors

Create two selectors, a feature selector and a selector that returns the userDetails. Open user.selector.ts and add the following code πŸ‘‡

// src/app/core/state/user/user.selector.ts

import { createFeatureSelector, createSelector } from "@ngrx/store";
import { UserState } from "./user.state";

export const selectUser = createFeatureSelector<UserState>("user");

export const selectUserDetails = createSelector(
  selectUser,
  (state: UserState) => state.userDetails
);

Let's also add some utility Selectors for isLoggedIn, userRoles, and isAdmin to easily let your components access these properties. Open user.selector.ts and update it with the following code πŸ‘‡

// src/app/core/state/user/user.selector.ts

import { createFeatureSelector, createSelector } from "@ngrx/store";

// ✨ New πŸ‘‡
import { environment } from "src/environments/environment";
import { UserState } from "./user.state";

// ✨ New πŸ‘‡
export const USER_ROLES = {
  MENU_ADMIN: "menu-admin",
};

export const selectUser = createFeatureSelector<UserState>("user");

export const selectUserDetails = createSelector(
  selectUser,
  (state: UserState) => state.userDetails
);

// ✨ New πŸ‘‡
export const selectIsLoggedIn = createSelector(
  selectUserDetails,
  (userDetails) => !!userDetails
);

// ✨ New πŸ‘‡
export const selectUserRoles = createSelector(
  selectUserDetails,
  (userDetails) => userDetails[`${environment.auth.audience}/roles`]
);

// ✨ New πŸ‘‡
export const selectIsAdmin = createSelector(selectUserRoles, (userRoles) =>
  userRoles?.includes(USER_ROLES.MENU_ADMIN)
);

Add user.selector to the list of exports in index.ts πŸ‘‡

// src/app/core/state/user/index.ts

export * from "./user.state";
export * from "./user.actions";

// ✨ New πŸ‘‡
export * from "./user.selector";

Update Application to Use User Selectors

The user role route guard was previously using the value of the roles from RolesService. Since you now have a user roles Selector, you can replace the current implementation with an NgRx Selector. Open user-role.guard.ts and add the following code πŸ‘‡

// src/app/core/guards/user-role.guard.ts

import { Injectable } from "@angular/core";
import {
  CanActivate,
  Router,
  ActivatedRouteSnapshot,
  RouterStateSnapshot,
} from "@angular/router";

// ✨ New πŸ‘‡
import { Store } from "@ngrx/store";

import { Observable, of } from "rxjs";
import { catchError, map } from "rxjs/operators";
import { selectUserRoles } from "../state/user";

@Injectable({ providedIn: "root" })
export class UserRoleGuard implements CanActivate {
  constructor(
    // ✨ New πŸ‘‡
    private store: Store,
    private router: Router
  ) {}

  canActivate(
    route: ActivatedRouteSnapshot,
    state: RouterStateSnapshot
  ): Observable<boolean> {
    // ✨ New πŸ‘‡
    return this.store.select(selectUserRoles).pipe(
      map((roles) => {
        if (roles && roles.includes(route?.data?.role)) {
          return true;
        }

        // redirect the user to home
        this.router.navigate(["/home"]);
        return false;
      }),
      catchError((err) => {
        // redirect the user to home
        this.router.navigate(["/home"]);
        return of(false);
      })
    );
  }
}

Another place we use user-related information is the Navbar. We display user information and conditionally display the login and logout button depending on the user's isAuthenticated state. Open nav-bar.component.ts and add the following code πŸ‘‡

// src/app/shared/components/nav-bar/nav-bar.component.ts

import { Component } from "@angular/core";
import { IconDefinition } from "@fortawesome/fontawesome-svg-core";
import { faHome, faUser, faUtensils } from "@fortawesome/free-solid-svg-icons";
import { Store } from "@ngrx/store";

// ✨ New πŸ‘‡
import {
  allNavbarActions,
  selectIsLoggedIn,
  selectUserDetails,
} from "src/app/core/state/user";

export interface INavBarMenuLinkProps {
  to: string;
  icon: IconDefinition;
  label: string;
}

@Component({
  selector: "app-nav-bar",
  templateUrl: "./nav-bar.component.html",
  styleUrls: ["./nav-bar.component.scss"],
})
export class NavBarComponent {
  faUser = faUser;

  // ✨ New πŸ‘‡
  isAuthenticated$ = this.store.select(selectIsLoggedIn);
  user$ = this.store.select(selectUserDetails);

  navOptions: INavBarMenuLinkProps[] = [
    { to: "/home", label: "Home", icon: faHome },
    { to: "/menu", label: "Menu", icon: faUtensils },
  ];

  constructor(private store: Store) {}

  loginWithRedirect(): void {
    this.store.dispatch(allNavbarActions.loginFlowInitiated());
  }

  logout(): void {
    this.store.dispatch(allNavbarActions.logoutFlowInitiated());
  }
}

The profile page displays some information about the user, such as name and photo. Since this is stored as part of the user Store, let's also update this to use the selectUserDetails Selector. Open profile.component.ts and add the following code πŸ‘‡

// src/app/features/profile/profile.component.ts

import { Component } from "@angular/core";

// ✨ New πŸ‘‡
import { Store } from "@ngrx/store";
import { selectUserDetails } from "src/app/core/state/user";

@Component({
  selector: "app-profile",
  templateUrl: "./profile.component.html",
  styleUrls: ["./profile.component.scss"],
})
export class ProfileComponent {
  // ✨ New πŸ‘‡
  user$ = this.store.select(selectUserDetails);

  // ✨ New πŸ‘‡
  constructor(private store: Store) {}
}

We display an Add button when the logged-in user is an admin user on the Menu Items page. You can read more about setting up admin users on Auth0 in this blog post. Open menu-items.component.ts and add the following code πŸ‘‡

// src/app/features/menu/menu-items/menu-items.component.ts

import { Component } from "@angular/core";
import { ActivatedRoute, Router } from "@angular/router";
import { Store } from "@ngrx/store";
import { selectMenuItems } from "src/app/core/state/menus";
// ✨ New πŸ‘‡
import { selectIsAdmin } from "src/app/core/state/user";

@Component({
  selector: "app-menu-items",
  templateUrl: "./menu-items.component.html",
  styles: [
    `
      :host {
        width: 100%;
        height: 100%;
      }
    `,
  ],
})
export class MenuItemsComponent {
  menuItems$ = this.store.select(selectMenuItems);
  // ✨ New πŸ‘‡
  isAdmin$ = this.store.select(selectIsAdmin);

  constructor(
    private router: Router,
    private activatedRoute: ActivatedRoute,
    private store: Store
  ) {}

  addMenuItem(): void {
    this.router.navigate(["add"], { relativeTo: this.activatedRoute });
  }
}

Lastly, we display a Edit and Delete buttons when the logged-in user is an admin user on the Menu Item page. Open menu-item.component.ts and add the following code πŸ‘‡

// src/app/features/menu/menu-item/menu-item.component.ts

import { Component } from "@angular/core";
import { Location } from "@angular/common";
import { ActivatedRoute, Router } from "@angular/router";
import { map, switchMap } from "rxjs/operators";
import { Store } from "@ngrx/store";
import { selectMenuItem } from "src/app/core/state/menus";

// ✨ New πŸ‘‡
import { selectIsAdmin } from "src/app/core/state/user";

@Component({
  selector: "app-menu-item",
  templateUrl: "./menu-item.component.html",
  styleUrls: ["./menu-item.component.scss"],
})
export class MenuItemComponent {
  menuItemId$ = this.activatedRoute.params.pipe(map((params) => params.id));
  menuItem$ = this.menuItemId$.pipe(
    switchMap((id) => this.store.select(selectMenuItem({ id: id })))
  );

  // ✨ New πŸ‘‡
  isAdmin$ = this.store.select(selectIsAdmin);

  constructor(
    private activatedRoute: ActivatedRoute,
    private router: Router,
    private location: Location,
    private store: Store
  ) {}

  back(): void {
    this.location.back();
  }

  navigateTo(url: string): void {
    this.router.navigateByUrl(`${this.router.url}/${url}`);
  }
}

Create User Reducer

The userDetails in the user Store will only be modified based on the userChanged event from Auth0's SDK to always keep them in sync. Open user.reducer.ts and add the following code πŸ‘‡

// src/app/core/state/user/user.reducer.ts

import { Action, createReducer, on } from "@ngrx/store";
import * as UserActions from "./user.actions";
import { initialState, UserState } from "./user.state";

const userReducer = createReducer(
  initialState,
  on(UserActions.userChangedFromAuth0SDK, (state, { userDetails }) => ({
    ...state,
    userDetails: userDetails,
  }))
);

export function reducer(state: UserState | undefined, action: Action) {
  return userReducer(state, action);
}

Update Core Reducer

Similar to what you did for the menus Reducer, you will need to add the reducer to the ActionReducerMap to use the user reducer. Open core.reducer.ts and add the following code πŸ‘‡

// src/app/core/state/core.reducers.ts

import { ActionReducerMap, MetaReducer } from "@ngrx/store";
import { State } from "./core.state";
import * as MenusReducer from "./menus/menus.reducer";
// ✨ New πŸ‘‡
import * as UserReducer from "./user/user.reducer";

export const reducers: ActionReducerMap<State> = {
  menus: MenusReducer.reducer,
  // ✨ New πŸ‘‡
  user: UserReducer.reducer,
};

export const metaReducers: MetaReducer<State>[] = [];

Create User Effects

You will be interacting with Auth0's SDK through the user Effects, to log in and log out the user and listen to changes in the user's state. Open user.effects.ts and add the following code πŸ‘‡

// src/app/core/state/user/user.effects.ts

import { Injectable } from "@angular/core";
import { AuthService } from "@auth0/auth0-angular";
import { Actions, createEffect, ofType } from "@ngrx/effects";
import { tap, map } from "rxjs/operators";
import * as UserActions from "./user.actions";

@Injectable()
export class UserEffects {
  constructor(
    private actions$: Actions<any>,
    private authService: AuthService
  ) {}

  login$ = createEffect(
    () =>
      this.actions$.pipe(
        ofType(UserActions.allNavbarActions.loginFlowInitiated.type),
        tap(() => this.authService.loginWithRedirect())
      ),
    { dispatch: false }
  );

  logout$ = createEffect(
    () =>
      this.actions$.pipe(
        ofType(UserActions.allNavbarActions.logoutFlowInitiated.type),
        tap(() => this.authService.logout())
      ),
    { dispatch: false }
  );
}

To keep the user observable from the Auth0's SDK and our user Store in sync, you can use an actionless effect that listens to an external observable (in our case authService.user$) and dispatches another action whenever that observable emits a new value. Open user.effects.ts and add the following code πŸ‘‡

// src/app/core/state/user/user.effects.ts

import { Injectable } from "@angular/core";
import { AuthService } from "@auth0/auth0-angular";
import { Actions, createEffect, ofType } from "@ngrx/effects";
import { tap, map } from "rxjs/operators";
import * as UserActions from "./user.actions";

@Injectable()
export class UserEffects {
  constructor(
    private actions$: Actions<any>,
    private authService: AuthService
  ) {}

  // ✨ New πŸ‘‡
  userChanged$ = createEffect(() =>
    this.authService.user$.pipe(
      map((userDetails) =>
        UserActions.userChangedFromAuth0SDK({ userDetails: userDetails })
      )
    )
  );

  login$ = createEffect(
    () =>
      this.actions$.pipe(
        ofType(UserActions.allNavbarActions.loginFlowInitiated.type),
        tap(() => this.authService.loginWithRedirect())
      ),
    { dispatch: false }
  );

  logout$ = createEffect(
    () =>
      this.actions$.pipe(
        ofType(UserActions.allNavbarActions.logoutFlowInitiated.type),
        tap(() => this.authService.logout())
      ),
    { dispatch: false }
  );
}

Add user.effects to the barrel export. Open index.ts and add the following code πŸ‘‡

// src/app/core/state/user/index.ts

export * from "./user.state";
export * from "./user.actions";
export * from "./user.selector";

// ✨ New πŸ‘‡
export * from "./user.effects";

Update Effects Module

You will then need to add UserEffects to the EffectsModule initialization. Open app.module.ts and add the following code

// src/app/app.module.ts

import { BrowserModule } from "@angular/platform-browser";
import { NgModule } from "@angular/core";
import { HttpClientModule, HTTP_INTERCEPTORS } from "@angular/common/http";
import { StoreModule } from "@ngrx/store";
import { EffectsModule } from "@ngrx/effects";
import { AuthHttpInterceptor, AuthModule } from "@auth0/auth0-angular";

import { AppRoutingModule } from "./app-routing.module";
import { AppComponent } from "./app.component";
import { NavBarModule } from "./shared";
import { environment } from "src/environments/environment";
import { reducers, metaReducers } from "./core/state";
import { MenusEffects } from "./core/state/menus";

// ✨ New πŸ‘‡
import { UserEffects } from "./core/state/user";

@NgModule({
  imports: [
    BrowserModule,
    HttpClientModule,
    AuthModule.forRoot({
      ...environment.auth,
      httpInterceptor: {
        allowedList: [
          `${environment.serverUrl}/api/menu/items`,
          `${environment.serverUrl}/api/menu/items/*`,
        ],
      },
    }),
    AppRoutingModule,
    NavBarModule,

    // NgRx
    StoreModule.forRoot(reducers, {
      metaReducers,
    }),

    // ✨ New πŸ‘‡
    EffectsModule.forRoot([MenusEffects, UserEffects]),
  ],
  declarations: [AppComponent],
  bootstrap: [AppComponent],
  providers: [
    {
      provide: HTTP_INTERCEPTORS,
      useClass: AuthHttpInterceptor,
      multi: true,
    },
  ],
})
export class AppModule {}

Checkpoint: There aren't any visible functional changes added in this section. The difference between the current state of the app compared to the previous checkpoint is its underlying implementation. The app now uses NgRx versus a BehaviorSubject to manage user-related states. The app should display the login button with an empty dashboard when the user is not authenticated, and display the logout button with the logged-in user's name along with the menu items on the dashboard when a user is authenticated. Clicking on the "Log in" and "Log out" buttons should trigger their respective flows using Auth0's SDK and update your application's state. If you open Redux Devtools in your browser, you should see the user state and actions every time you perform any user-related actions.

Conclusion

State management is a key component when building applications. You added two Stores to our demo application to manage two distinct states - menus and user. This is a relatively small demo application with a few Stores, Actions, and Reducers to show how you can use NgRx to manage your Application's state, and use NgRx with Auth0's SDK to handle user-related functionalities.

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