Centralized Universal Login vs. Embedded Login
When you design the authentication experience for your application, you have to choose whether the login flow will use universal or embedded login.
With Universal Login, when the users try to log in they are redirected to a central domain, through which authentication is performed, and then they are redirected back to the app. An example is G Suite. No matter which service you are trying to access (gmail, google calendar, google docs, etc) if you are not logged in you are redirected to
https://accounts.google.com and once you successfully log in you are redirected back to the calling app.
On the other hand, an embedded login flow does not redirect the user somewhere central. The login widget is served from the same page without redirecting the user to another domain. The credentials are then sent to the authentication provider for authentication. In a web app this is a cross-origin request.
In this article, we will evaluate the pros and cons of these two options and see how you can use Auth0 to implement them.
Pros and cons
Single Sign-on (SSO): If you are working with mobile apps you cannot have SSO unless you use Universal Login. With web apps you can, although the most secure way is to use a central service so the cookies are from the same origin. With embedded login, you'd have to collect the user credentials in an application served from one origin and then send them to another origin, which can present certain security vulnerabilities, including the possibility of a phishing attack (see Embedded Login with Auth0 > Security risks for more info). There are workarounds you could use, like third-party cookies, but the most secure option for SSO, and logins in general, is using a central service.
Consistency and Maintenance: With embedded login, if you have more than one app, you will have to implement more than one login page. You will also have to maintain and manage these pages. Besides the extra effort it can also introduce inconsistencies which results in bad UX. Furthermore, with embedded login you would have to manage the dangers of cross-origin attack vectors. On the other hand, if you are using Universal Login, then your Authorization Server (the domain that logs the users in) owns all the login pages which makes the management easier and the pages more consistent and secure. You could also use a single login page among your apps, a process that creates an impression that users are logging into a centralized system, rather than an individual app. In the following diagram you can see an example of how the universal and embedded logins look. The reason why the Universal Login offers a more consistent and thus superior use experience is evident.
Central Features Management: When you use Universal Login with Auth0, you can turn on and off features across all your apps, using the Dashboard. An example is Multi-factor Authentication which you can enable using the toggles located at the Dashboard > Multi-factor Auth page. These changes will be automatically available to all your registered apps.
User Experience: In the past, an argument could be made that the user experience with embedded login was better because it did not require redirecting users to another subdomain. However, users are getting increasingly familiar with the process of being redirected to another subdomain to log in. As a result, they don't find the process disruptive to their experience. Think about this, when you try to access your Gmail, if you are not logged in, you get redirected to the Google Accounts subdomain in order to log in. Do you get frustrated with that? You probably don't even notice it.
Mobile Apps & Security: According to the Best Current Practice for OAuth 2.0 for Native Apps Request For Comments, only external user agents (such as the browser) should be used by native applications for authentication flows. Using the browser to make native app authorization requests results in better security and it gives users the confidence that they are entering credentials in the right domain. It also enables use of the user's current authentication state, making Single Sign-on (SSO) possible. Embedded user agents are deemed unsafe for third parties and should not be implemented (see Embedded Login with Auth0 > Security risks for more info). With native login a malicious app could try and phish users for username/password or tokens. Also, if your mobile apps use native login, then your users have to enter their credentials for each of your apps, hence SSO is not possible.
Universal Login with Auth0
You can use Auth0's Custom Domains in order to persist the same domain across the login page and the app. This way the redirect to the login page will be transparent to your users since the domain will not change. For more details, see Custom Domains.
Whenever your app triggers an authentication request, the user will be redirected to the login page in order to authenticate. This will create a cookie. In future authentication requests, Auth0 will check for this cookie, and if it is present the user will not be redirected to the login page. They will see the page only when they need to actually log in. This is the easiest way to implement SSO.
Note that if the incoming authentication request uses an external identity provider (for example, Facebook), the login page will not be displayed. Instead, Auth0 will direct the user to the identity provider's login page.
Our recommendation is to use Universal Login when you use Auth0. The first and foremost reason is security. Using Auth0 Universal Login instead of embedding login in your application provides seamless CSRF protection. This helps prevent third-party impersonation or the hijacking of sessions.
Embedded login with Auth0
Embedded logins in web apps with Auth0 use Cross-Origin Authentication. This uses third-party cookies to allow for secure authentication transactions across different origins. This does not apply to native applications since they use the standard OAuth 2.0 Token endpoint.
Auth0 does not recommend using cross-origin authentication, however if you do, only when authenticating against a directory using a username and password. Social IdPs and enterprise federation use a different mechanism, redirecting via standard protocols like OpenID Connect (OIDC) and SAML. Additionally, cross-origin authentication is only applicable to embedded login on the web (using Lock or auth0.js). Native applications using embedded login make use of the standard OAuth 2.0 Token endpoint.
In addition, if you have not enabled custom domains, the end user must have a browser that supports third-party cookies. Otherwise, in some browsers, cross-origin authentication will fail. This limitation applies to both traditional username/password database connections as well as passwordless database connections.
Universal Login is more secure than embedded login. Authentication takes place over the same domain, eliminating cross-origin requests. Cross-origin authentication is inherently more dangerous. Collecting user credentials in an application served from one origin and then sending them to another origin can present certain security vulnerabilities. Phishing attacks are more likely, as are bucket brigade attacks. Universal Login does not send information between origins, thereby negating cross-origin concerns.
Embedded user agents are unsafe for third parties, including the authorization server itself. If an embedded login is used, the app has access to both the authorization grant and the user's authentication credentials. As a consequence, this data is left vulnerable to recording or malicious use. Even if the app is trusted, allowing it to access the authorization grant as well as the user's full credentials is unnecessary. This violates the principle of least privilege and increases the potential for attack.
As a matter of fact, Google no longer supports an embedded approach when implementing OAuth. For more information on this, refer to Google Blocks OAuth Requests Made via embedded browsers.
Furthermore, according to the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), authorization requests from native apps should only be made through external user agents, primarily the user's browser. Using the browser to make native app authorization requests results in better security. When embedded agents are used, the app has access to the OAuth authorization grant as well as the user's credentials, leaving this data vulnerable to recording or malicious use. For more info refer to OAuth 2.0 Best Practices for Native Apps.