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Gravatar for sergiu.ghitea@auth0.com
By Sergiu Ghitea

This tutorial demonstrates how to add user login to a Go web application using Auth0. We recommend that you log in to follow this quickstart with examples configured for your account.

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System requirements: Go 1.15+

Configure Auth0

Get Your Application Keys

When you signed up for Auth0, a new application was created for you, or you could have created a new one. You will need some details about that application to communicate with Auth0. You can get these details from the Application Settings section in the Auth0 dashboard.

App Dashboard

You need the following information:

  • Domain
  • Client ID
  • Client Secret

Configure Callback URLs

A callback URL is a URL in your application where Auth0 redirects the user after they have authenticated. The callback URL for your app must be added to the Allowed Callback URLs field in your Application Settings. If this field is not set, users will be unable to log in to the application and will get an error.

Configure Logout URLs

A logout URL is a URL in your application that Auth0 can return to after the user has been logged out of the authorization server. This is specified in the returnTo query parameter. The logout URL for your app must be added to the Allowed Logout URLs field in your Application Settings. If this field is not set, users will be unable to log out from the application and will get an error.

Configure Go to Use Auth0

Download dependencies

Start by adding a go.mod file to list all the dependencies to be used.

// go.mod

module 01-Login

go 1.16

require (
  github.com/coreos/go-oidc/v3 v3.1.0
  github.com/gin-contrib/sessions v0.0.3
  github.com/gin-gonic/gin v1.7.4
  github.com/joho/godotenv v1.4.0
  golang.org/x/oauth2 v0.0.0-20200107190931-bf48bf16ab8d
)

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We can now make the dependencies available for us by running the following shell command:

go mod download

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Configure your application

Create a .env file within the root of your project directory to store the app configuration, and fill in the environment variables:

# The URL of our Auth0 Tenant Domain.
# If you're using a Custom Domain, be sure to set this to that value instead.
AUTH0_DOMAIN='YOUR_DOMAIN'

# Our Auth0 application's Client ID.
AUTH0_CLIENT_ID='YOUR_CLIENT_ID'

# Our Auth0 application's Client Secret.
AUTH0_CLIENT_SECRET='YOUR_CLIENT_SECRET'

# The Callback URL of our application.
AUTH0_CALLBACK_URL='http://localhost:3000/callback'

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Configure OAuth2 and OpenID Connect packages

Create a file called auth.go in the platform/authenticator folder. In this package you'll create a method to configure and return OAuth2 and oidc clients, and another one to verify an ID Token.

// platform/authenticator/auth.go

package authenticator

import (
	"context"
	"errors"
	"os"

	"github.com/coreos/go-oidc/v3/oidc"
	"golang.org/x/oauth2"
)

// Authenticator is used to authenticate our users.
type Authenticator struct {
	*oidc.Provider
	oauth2.Config
}

// New instantiates the *Authenticator.
func New() (*Authenticator, error) {
	provider, err := oidc.NewProvider(
		context.Background(),
		"https://"+os.Getenv("AUTH0_DOMAIN")+"/",
	)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, err
	}

	conf := oauth2.Config{
		ClientID:     os.Getenv("AUTH0_CLIENT_ID"),
		ClientSecret: os.Getenv("AUTH0_CLIENT_SECRET"),
		RedirectURL:  os.Getenv("AUTH0_CALLBACK_URL"),
		Endpoint:     provider.Endpoint(),
		Scopes:       []string{oidc.ScopeOpenID, "profile"},
	}

	return &Authenticator{
		Provider: provider,
		Config:   conf,
	}, nil
}

// VerifyIDToken verifies that an *oauth2.Token is a valid *oidc.IDToken.
func (a *Authenticator) VerifyIDToken(ctx context.Context, token *oauth2.Token) (*oidc.IDToken, error) {
	rawIDToken, ok := token.Extra("id_token").(string)
	if !ok {
		return nil, errors.New("no id_token field in oauth2 token")
	}

	oidcConfig := &oidc.Config{
		ClientID: a.ClientID,
	}

	return a.Verifier(oidcConfig).Verify(ctx, rawIDToken)
}

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Setting up your application routes

Create a file called router.go in the platform/router folder. In this package you'll create a method to configure and return our routes using github.com/gin-gonic/gin. You will be passing an instance of Authenticator to the method, so it can be used within the login and callback handlers.

// platform/router/router.go

package router

import (
	"encoding/gob"
	"net/http"

	"github.com/gin-contrib/sessions"
	"github.com/gin-contrib/sessions/cookie"
	"github.com/gin-gonic/gin"

	"01-Login/platform/authenticator"
	"01-Login/platform/middleware"
	"01-Login/web/app/callback"
	"01-Login/web/app/login"
	"01-Login/web/app/logout"
	"01-Login/web/app/user"
)

// New registers the routes and returns the router.
func New(auth *authenticator.Authenticator) *gin.Engine {
	router := gin.Default()

	// To store custom types in our cookies,
	// we must first register them using gob.Register
	gob.Register(map[string]interface{}{})

	store := cookie.NewStore([]byte("secret"))
	router.Use(sessions.Sessions("auth-session", store))

	router.Static("/public", "web/static")
	router.LoadHTMLGlob("web/template/*")

	router.GET("/", func(ctx *gin.Context) {
		ctx.HTML(http.StatusOK, "home.html", nil)
	})
	router.GET("/login", login.Handler(auth))
	router.GET("/callback", callback.Handler(auth))
	router.GET("/user", user.Handler)
	router.GET("/logout", logout.Handler)

	return router
}

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Serving your application

Next, let's create our application's entry point main.go and wire everything up together:

// main.go

package main

import (
	"log"
	"net/http"

	"github.com/joho/godotenv"

	"01-Login/platform/authenticator"
	"01-Login/platform/router"
)

func main() {
	if err := godotenv.Load(); err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("Failed to load the env vars: %v", err)
	}

	auth, err := authenticator.New()
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("Failed to initialize the authenticator: %v", err)
	}

	rtr := router.New(auth)

	log.Print("Server listening on http://localhost:3000/")
	if err := http.ListenAndServe("0.0.0.0:3000", rtr); err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("There was an error with the http server: %v", err)
	}
}

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Logging In

Create a file called login.go in the web/app/login folder, and add a Handler function to handle the /login route.

// web/app/login/login.go

package login

import (
	"crypto/rand"
	"encoding/base64"
	"net/http"

	"github.com/gin-contrib/sessions"
	"github.com/gin-gonic/gin"

	"01-Login/platform/authenticator"
)

// Handler for our login.
func Handler(auth *authenticator.Authenticator) gin.HandlerFunc {
	return func(ctx *gin.Context) {
		state, err := generateRandomState()
		if err != nil {
			ctx.String(http.StatusInternalServerError, err.Error())
			return
		}

		// Save the state inside the session.
		session := sessions.Default(ctx)
		session.Set("state", state)
		if err := session.Save(); err != nil {
			ctx.String(http.StatusInternalServerError, err.Error())
			return
		}

		ctx.Redirect(http.StatusTemporaryRedirect, auth.AuthCodeURL(state))
	}
}

func generateRandomState() (string, error) {
	b := make([]byte, 32)
	_, err := rand.Read(b)
	if err != nil {
		return "", err
	}

	state := base64.StdEncoding.EncodeToString(b)

	return state, nil
}

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Add a link to /login route in the home.html template.

<!-- web/template/home.html -->

<div>
    <h3>Auth0 Example</h3>
    <p>Zero friction identity infrastructure, built for developers</p>
    <a href="/login">SignIn</a>
</div>

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Handling Authentication Callback

Once users have authenticated using Auth0's Universal Login Page, they'll return to the app at the /callback route that will be handled in the following Handler function:

// web/app/callback/callback.go

package callback

import (
	"net/http"

	"github.com/gin-contrib/sessions"
	"github.com/gin-gonic/gin"

	"01-Login/platform/authenticator"
)

// Handler for our callback.
func Handler(auth *authenticator.Authenticator) gin.HandlerFunc {
	return func(ctx *gin.Context) {
		session := sessions.Default(ctx)
		if ctx.Query("state") != session.Get("state") {
			ctx.String(http.StatusBadRequest, "Invalid state parameter.")
			return
		}

		// Exchange an authorization code for a token.
		token, err := auth.Exchange(ctx.Request.Context(), ctx.Query("code"))
		if err != nil {
			ctx.String(http.StatusUnauthorized, "Failed to exchange an authorization code for a token.")
			return
		}

		idToken, err := auth.VerifyIDToken(ctx.Request.Context(), token)
		if err != nil {
			ctx.String(http.StatusInternalServerError, "Failed to verify ID Token.")
			return
		}

		var profile map[string]interface{}
		if err := idToken.Claims(&profile); err != nil {
			ctx.String(http.StatusInternalServerError, err.Error())
			return
		}

		session.Set("access_token", token.AccessToken)
		session.Set("profile", profile)
		if err := session.Save(); err != nil {
			ctx.String(http.StatusInternalServerError, err.Error())
			return
		}

		// Redirect to logged in page.
		ctx.Redirect(http.StatusTemporaryRedirect, "/user")
	}
}

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Displaying User Information

You can access the user information via the profile you stored in the session previously.

// web/app/user/user.go

package user

import (
	"net/http"

	"github.com/gin-contrib/sessions"
	"github.com/gin-gonic/gin"
)

// Handler for our logged-in user page.
func Handler(ctx *gin.Context) {
	session := sessions.Default(ctx)
	profile := session.Get("profile")

	ctx.HTML(http.StatusOK, "user.html", profile)
}

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<!-- web/template/user.html -->

<div>
    <img class="avatar" src="{{ .picture }}"/>
    <h2>Welcome {{.nickname}}</h2>
</div>

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For information about the userinfo hash, see User Profile.

Logging Out

To log the user out, clear the data from the session and redirect the user to the Auth0 logout endpoint. You can find more information about this in the logout documentation.

Create a file called logout.go in the folder web/app/logout/logout.go, and add the function Handler to redirect the user to Auth0's logout endpoint.

// web/app/logout/logout.go

package logout

import (
	"net/http"
	"net/url"
	"os"

	"github.com/gin-gonic/gin"
)

// Handler for our logout.
func Handler(ctx *gin.Context) {
	logoutUrl, err := url.Parse("https://" + os.Getenv("AUTH0_DOMAIN") + "/v2/logout")
	if err != nil {
		ctx.String(http.StatusInternalServerError, err.Error())
		return
	}

	scheme := "http"
	if ctx.Request.TLS != nil {
		scheme = "https"
	}

	returnTo, err := url.Parse(scheme + "://" + ctx.Request.Host)
	if err != nil {
		ctx.String(http.StatusInternalServerError, err.Error())
		return
	}

	parameters := url.Values{}
	parameters.Add("returnTo", returnTo.String())
	parameters.Add("client_id", os.Getenv("AUTH0_CLIENT_ID"))
	logoutUrl.RawQuery = parameters.Encode()

	ctx.Redirect(http.StatusTemporaryRedirect, logoutUrl.String())
}

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Create a file called user.js in the folder web/static/js, and add the code to remove the cookie from a logged-in user.

$(document).ready(function () {
    $('.btn-logout').click(function (e) {
        Cookies.remove('auth-session');
    });
});

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Optional Steps

Checking if the user is authenticated

Create a middleware that will check if the user is authenticated or not based on the profile session key:

// platform/middleware/isAuthenticated.go

package middleware

import (
	"net/http"

	"github.com/gin-contrib/sessions"
	"github.com/gin-gonic/gin"
)

// IsAuthenticated is a middleware that checks if
// the user has already been authenticated previously.
func IsAuthenticated(ctx *gin.Context) {
	if sessions.Default(ctx).Get("profile") == nil {
		ctx.Redirect(http.StatusSeeOther, "/")
	} else {
		ctx.Next()
	}
}

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Finally, set up this middleware for any route that needs authentication by adding it to the router.

// platform/router/router.go

router.GET("/user", middleware.IsAuthenticated, user.Handler)

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