Python API

Sample Project

Download a sample project specific to this tutorial configured with your Auth0 API Keys.

System Requirements
  • flask 0.11.1
  • python-jose 1.3.2
  • flask-cors 3.0.2
  • six 1.10.0
Show requirements

This tutorial shows you how to use the authorization features in the OAuth 2.0 framework to limit access to your or third-party applications. For more information, read the API authorization documentation.

Create a Resource Server (API)

In the APIs section of the Auth0 dashboard, click Create API. Provide a name and an identifier for your API. You will use the identifier as an audience later, when you are configuring the access token verification. For Signing Algorithm, select RS256.

Create API

Add API Authorization

To restrict access to the resources served by your API, check the incoming requests for valid authorization information. The authorization information is stored in the access token created for the user and needs to be sent in the Authorization header. To see if the token is valid, check it against the JSON Web Key Set (JWKS) for your Auth0 account. To learn more about validating access tokens, read the Verify Access Tokens tutorial.

Install the Dependencies

This quickstart demonstrates how to add authorization to your Python API using Flask. Add the following dependencies to your requirements.txt:

flask
python-jose
flask-cors
six

Create the Flask APP

Create a server.py file and initializate the Flask App. Set the domain, audience and the error handling.

import json
from six.moves.urllib.request import urlopen
from functools import wraps

from flask import Flask, request, jsonify, _app_ctx_stack
from flask_cors import cross_origin
from jose import jwt

AUTH0_DOMAIN = 'YOUR_AUTH0_DOMAIN'
API_AUDIENCE = YOUR_API_AUDIENCE
ALGORITHMS = ["RS256"]

APP = Flask(__name__)

# Error handler
class AuthError(Exception):
    def __init__(self, error, status_code):
        self.error = error
        self.status_code = status_code
    
@APP.errorhandler(AuthError)
def handle_auth_error(ex):
    response = jsonify(ex.error)
    response.status_code = ex.status_code
    return response

Create the JWT Validation Decorator

By default, your API will be set up to use RS256 as the algorithm for signing tokens. Since RS256 works by using a private/public keypair, tokens can be verified against the public key for your Auth0 account. This public key is accessible at https://YOUR_AUTH0_DOMAIN/.well-known/jwks.json.

Add a decorator which verifies the access_token against your JWKS.

# Format error response and append status code
    
def get_token_auth_header():
    """Obtains the access token from the Authorization Header
    """
    auth = request.headers.get("Authorization", None)
    if not auth:
        raise AuthError({"code": "authorization_header_missing",
                        "description":
                            "Authorization header is expected"}, 401)
    
    parts = auth.split()
    
    if parts[0].lower() != "bearer":
        raise AuthError({"code": "invalid_header",
                        "description":
                            "Authorization header must start with"
                            " Bearer"}, 401)
    elif len(parts) == 1:
        raise AuthError({"code": "invalid_header",
                        "description": "Token not found"}, 401)
    elif len(parts) > 2:
        raise AuthError({"code": "invalid_header",
                        "description":
                            "Authorization header must be"
                            " Bearer token"}, 401)

    token = parts[1]
    return token

def requires_auth(f):
    """Determines if the access token is valid
    """
    @wraps(f)
    def decorated(*args, **kwargs):
        token = get_token_auth_header()
        jsonurl = urlopen("https://"+AUTH0_DOMAIN+"/.well-known/jwks.json")
        jwks = json.loads(jsonurl.read())
        unverified_header = jwt.get_unverified_header(token)
        rsa_key = {}
        for key in jwks["keys"]:
            if key["kid"] == unverified_header["kid"]:
                rsa_key = {
                    "kty": key["kty"],
                    "kid": key["kid"],
                    "use": key["use"],
                    "n": key["n"],
                    "e": key["e"]
                }
        if rsa_key:
            try:
                payload = jwt.decode(
                    token,
                    rsa_key,
                    algorithms=ALGORITHMS,
                    audience=API_AUDIENCE,
                    issuer="https://"+AUTH0_DOMAIN+"/"
                )
            except jwt.ExpiredSignatureError:
                raise AuthError({"code": "token_expired",
                                "description": "token is expired"}, 401)
            except jwt.JWTClaimsError:
                raise AuthError({"code": "invalid_claims",
                                "description":
                                    "incorrect claims,"
                                    "please check the audience and issuer"}, 401)
            except Exception:
                raise AuthError({"code": "invalid_header",
                                "description":
                                    "Unable to parse authentication"
                                    " token."}, 400)

            _app_ctx_stack.top.current_user = payload
            return f(*args, **kwargs)
        raise AuthError({"code": "invalid_header",
                        "description": "Unable to find appropriate key"}, 400)
    return decorated

Use this Decorator in your Methods

You can now use the decorator in any routes that require authentication.

# Controllers API

# This doesn't need authentication
@app.route("/ping")
@cross_origin(headers=['Content-Type', 'Authorization'])
def ping():
    return "All good. You don't need to be authenticated to call this"

# This does need authentication
@app.route("/secured/ping")
@cross_origin(headers=['Content-Type', 'Authorization'])
@requires_auth
def securedPing():
    return "All good. You only get this message if you're authenticated"

Protect individual endpoints

Individual routes can be configured to look for a particular scope in the access_token by using the following:

def requires_scope(required_scope):
    """Determines if the required scope is present in the access token
    Args:
        required_scope (str): The scope required to access the resource
    """
    token = get_token_auth_header()
    unverified_claims = jwt.get_unverified_claims(token)
    token_scopes = unverified_claims["scope"].split()
    for token_scope in token_scopes:
        if token_scope == required_scope:
            return True
    return False

Then, establish what scopes are needed in order to access the route. In this case example:scope is used:

@APP.route("/secured/private/ping")
@cross_origin(headers=["Content-Type", "Authorization"])
@cross_origin(headers=["Access-Control-Allow-Origin", "*"])
@requires_auth
def secured_private_ping():
    """A valid access token and an appropriate scope are required to access this route
    """
    if requires_scope("example:scope"):
        return "All good. You're authenticated and the access token has the appropriate scope"
    return "You don't have access to this resource"

Make a Call to Your API

To make calls to your API, you need an access token. You can get an access token for testing purposes from the test lab in your API settings.

Obtain a JWT

Provide the access token as an Authorization header in your requests.


curl --request GET \
  --url http://your-domain.com/api_path \
  --header 'authorization: Bearer YOUR_ACCESS_TOKEN_HERE'
var client = new RestClient("http://your-domain.com/api_path");
var request = new RestRequest(Method.GET);
request.AddHeader("authorization", "Bearer YOUR_ACCESS_TOKEN_HERE");
IRestResponse response = client.Execute(request);
package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"net/http"
	"io/ioutil"
)

func main() {

	url := "http://your-domain.com/api_path"

	req, _ := http.NewRequest("GET", url, nil)

	req.Header.Add("authorization", "Bearer YOUR_ACCESS_TOKEN_HERE")

	res, _ := http.DefaultClient.Do(req)

	defer res.Body.Close()
	body, _ := ioutil.ReadAll(res.Body)

	fmt.Println(res)
	fmt.Println(string(body))

}
HttpResponse<String> response = Unirest.get("http://your-domain.com/api_path")
  .header("authorization", "Bearer YOUR_ACCESS_TOKEN_HERE")
  .asString();
var settings = {
  "async": true,
  "crossDomain": true,
  "url": "http://your-domain.com/api_path",
  "method": "GET",
  "headers": {
    "authorization": "Bearer YOUR_ACCESS_TOKEN_HERE"
  }
}

$.ajax(settings).done(function (response) {
  console.log(response);
});
var request = require("request");

var options = { method: 'GET',
  url: 'http://your-domain.com/api_path',
  headers: { authorization: 'Bearer YOUR_ACCESS_TOKEN_HERE' } };

request(options, function (error, response, body) {
  if (error) throw new Error(error);

  console.log(body);
});
#import <Foundation/Foundation.h>

NSDictionary *headers = @{ @"authorization": @"Bearer YOUR_ACCESS_TOKEN_HERE" };

NSMutableURLRequest *request = [NSMutableURLRequest requestWithURL:[NSURL URLWithString:@"http://your-domain.com/api_path"]
                                                       cachePolicy:NSURLRequestUseProtocolCachePolicy
                                                   timeoutInterval:10.0];
[request setHTTPMethod:@"GET"];
[request setAllHTTPHeaderFields:headers];

NSURLSession *session = [NSURLSession sharedSession];
NSURLSessionDataTask *dataTask = [session dataTaskWithRequest:request
                                            completionHandler:^(NSData *data, NSURLResponse *response, NSError *error) {
                                                if (error) {
                                                    NSLog(@"%@", error);
                                                } else {
                                                    NSHTTPURLResponse *httpResponse = (NSHTTPURLResponse *) response;
                                                    NSLog(@"%@", httpResponse);
                                                }
                                            }];
[dataTask resume];
$curl = curl_init();

curl_setopt_array($curl, array(
  CURLOPT_URL => "http://your-domain.com/api_path",
  CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER => true,
  CURLOPT_ENCODING => "",
  CURLOPT_MAXREDIRS => 10,
  CURLOPT_TIMEOUT => 30,
  CURLOPT_HTTP_VERSION => CURL_HTTP_VERSION_1_1,
  CURLOPT_CUSTOMREQUEST => "GET",
  CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER => array(
    "authorization: Bearer YOUR_ACCESS_TOKEN_HERE"
  ),
));

$response = curl_exec($curl);
$err = curl_error($curl);

curl_close($curl);

if ($err) {
  echo "cURL Error #:" . $err;
} else {
  echo $response;
}
import http.client

conn = http.client.HTTPConnection("your-domain.com")

headers = { 'authorization': "Bearer YOUR_ACCESS_TOKEN_HERE" }

conn.request("GET", "/api_path", headers=headers)

res = conn.getresponse()
data = res.read()

print(data.decode("utf-8"))
require 'uri'
require 'net/http'

url = URI("http://your-domain.com/api_path")

http = Net::HTTP.new(url.host, url.port)

request = Net::HTTP::Get.new(url)
request["authorization"] = 'Bearer YOUR_ACCESS_TOKEN_HERE'

response = http.request(request)
puts response.read_body
import Foundation

let headers = ["authorization": "Bearer YOUR_ACCESS_TOKEN_HERE"]

var request = NSMutableURLRequest(URL: NSURL(string: "http://your-domain.com/api_path")!,
                                        cachePolicy: .UseProtocolCachePolicy,
                                    timeoutInterval: 10.0)
request.HTTPMethod = "GET"
request.allHTTPHeaderFields = headers

let session = NSURLSession.sharedSession()
let dataTask = session.dataTaskWithRequest(request, completionHandler: { (data, response, error) -> Void in
  if (error != nil) {
    println(error)
  } else {
    let httpResponse = response as? NSHTTPURLResponse
    println(httpResponse)
  }
})

dataTask.resume()

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