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Python API: Authorization

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Python API: Authorization

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By Andres Aguiar
Auth0

This tutorial demonstrates how to add authorization to a Python API built with Flask. We recommend you to Log in to follow this quickstart with examples configured for your account.

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System requirements: python 2.7, 3.3 and up | flask 0.11.1 | python-jose-cryptodome 1.3.2 | flask-cors 3.0.2 | six 1.10.0

New to Auth0? Learn how Auth0 works and read about implementing API authentication and authorization using the OAuth 2.0 framework.

Configure Auth0 APIs

Create an API

In the APIs section of the Auth0 dashboard, click Create API. Provide a name and an identifier for your API, for example https://quickstarts/api. You will use the identifier as an audience later, when you are configuring the Access Token verification. For Signing Algorithm, select RS256.

Create API

By default, your API uses RS256 as the algorithm for signing tokens. Since RS256 uses a private/public keypair, it verifies the tokens against the public key for your Auth0 account. The public key is in the JSON Web Key Set (JWKS) format, and can be accessed here.

Define scopes

Scopes let you define which resources can be accessed by the user with a given Access Token. For example, you might choose to grant read access to the messages resource if users have the manager access level, and a write access to that resource if they have the administrator access level.

You can add the required scopes in the Scopes tab of the Auth0 Dashboard's APIs section.

Configure Scopes

This example uses the read:messages scope.

This example demonstrates:

  • How to check for a JSON Web Token (JWT) in the Authorization header of an incoming HTTP request.

  • How to check if the token is valid, using the JSON Web Key Set (JWKS) for your Auth0 account. To learn more about validating Access Tokens, read the Verify Access Tokens tutorial.

Validate Access Tokens

Install dependencies

Add the following dependencies to your requirements.txt:

Create a Flask application

Create a server.py file and initialize the Flask application. Set the domain, audience and the error handling.

Create the JWT validation decorator

Add a decorator which verifies the Access Token against your JWKS.

Validate scopes

Individual routes can be configured to look for a particular scope in the Access Token by using the following:

Protect API Endpoints

The routes shown below are available for the following requests:

  • GET /api/public: available for non-authenticated requests
  • GET /api/private: available for authenticated requests containing an Access Token with no additional scopes
  • GET /api/private-scoped: available for authenticated requests containing an Access Token with the read:messages scope granted

You can use the decorators and functions define above in the corresponding endpoints.

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