Java Spring Security
This tutorial demonstrates how to add user login to a Java Spring Security web application. We recommend you to Log in to follow this quickstart with examples configured for your account.
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Get Your Application Keys
When you signed up for Auth0, a new application was created for you, or you could have created a new one.
You will need some details about that application to communicate with Auth0. You can get these details from the Application Settings section in the Auth0 dashboard.
You need the following information:
- Client ID
- Client Secret
Configure Callback URLs
A callback URL is a URL in your application where Auth0 redirects the user after they have authenticated.
The callback URL for your app must be whitelisted in the Allowed Callback URLs field in your Application Settings. If this field is not set, users will be unable to log in to the application and will get an error.
Configure Logout URLs
A logout URL is a URL in your application that Auth0 can return to after the user has been logged out of the authorization server. This is specified in the
returnTo query parameter.
The logout URL for your app must be whitelisted in the Allowed Logout URLs field in your Application Settings. If this field is not set, users will be unable to log out from the application and will get an error.
Configure Spring Security to Use Auth0
You'll need to configure Spring Boot in your project first. You can generate the base project in this link, choosing
Web in the dependencies and clicking the button "Generate Project". The downloaded project has the Spring Boot dependencies and plugin applied.
The next step is to add the auth0-java-mvc-commons library. This allows you to use Auth0 with Java for server-side MVC web apps. It generates the Authorize URL that you need to call in order to authenticate and validates the result received on the way back to finally obtain the Auth0 Tokens that identify the user. You can always check the latest version in the library's GitHub.
If you are using Gradle, add it to your
If you are using Maven, add it to your
Configure your Java Spring Security App
Your Java Spring Security App needs some information in order to authenticate against your Auth0 account. The samples read this information from the properties file
src/main/resources/auth0.properties, but you could store them anywhere else. The required information is:
The library we're using has this default behavior:
- Request the scope
openid, needed to call the
/userinfoendpoint later to verify the User's identity.
- Request the
codeResponse Type and later perform a Code Exchange to obtain the tokens.
- Use the
HS256Algorithm along with the Client Secret to verify the tokens.
But it also allows us to customize its behavior:
- To use the
RS256Algorithm along with the Public Key obtained dynamically from the Auth0 hosted JWKs file, pass a
JwkProviderinstance to the
- To use a different Response Type, set the desired value in the
AuthenticationControllerbuilder. Any combination of
code token id_tokenis allowed.
- To request a different
scope, set the desired value in the
AuthorizeUrlreceived after calling
- To specify the
audience, set the desired value in the
AuthorizeUrlreceived after calling
Check populated attributes
If you download the seed using our Download Sample button then the
clientSecret attributes will be populated for you, unless you are not logged in or you do not have at least one registered application. In any case, you should verify that the values are correct if you have multiple applications in your account and you might want to use another than the one we set the information for.
The Login project sample has the following structure:
The application uses Thymeleaf for view rendering. The two views in our application are:
index.html: Displays the home page. If the user is logged in, it will display the user's profile picture and a menu to see the user profile data.
profile.html: Displays the user profile page, showing the profile data from the authenticated user's ID token. This view should only be accessible to authenticated users.
The access control is handled by the Spring Security framework. A few rules in the
AppConfig.java class will suffice to check for existing tokens before giving the user access to our protected
/profile path. If the tokens don't exist, the request will be redirected by the
ErrorController to the
The project contains six Controllers:
LoginController.java: Invoked when the user attempts to login. The controller uses the
domainparameters to create a valid Authorize URL and redirects the user there.
CallbackController.java: Captures requests to our Callback URL and processes the data to obtain the credentials. After a successful login, the credentials are then saved to the request's HttpSession.
HomeController.java: Renders the
index.htmlresource. If the user is logged in, it sets the user's profile information on the Model so the view can display information about the authenticated user.
ProfileController.java: Sets the authenticated user's profile information on the Model and renders the
LogoutController.java: Invoked when the user clicks the logout link. The controller invalidates the user session and redirects the user to the home page.
ErrorController.java: The controller triggers upon any non-handled exception and redirects the user to the
Let's begin by making your Auth0 credentials available on the App. In the
AppConfig class we tell Spring to map the properties defined in the
auth0.properties file to the corresponding fields by using the
Next, define the rules that will prevent unauthenticated users to access our protected resources. You do that by allowing anyone to access the
/callback endpoints (and our static view resources) in order to be able to complete the login flow, and blocking them from accessing any other endpoint if they are not authenticated. We also configure Spring Security to handle logout by registering our
Now create the
AuthenticationController instance that will create the Authorize URLs and handle the request received in the callback. Do that by defining a method that returns the Bean in the same
AppConfig class. Any customization on the behavior of the component should be done here, such as requesting a different response type or using a different signature verification algorithm.
To authenticate the users you will redirect them to the login page which uses Universal Login. This page is accessible from what we call the "Authorize URL". By using this library you can generate it with a simple method call. It will require a
HttpServletRequest to store the call context in the session and the URI to redirect the authentication result to. This URI is normally the address where your app is running plus the path where the result will be parsed, which happens to be also the "Callback URL" whitelisted before. We also request the "User Info" audience in order to obtain an Open ID Connect compliant response. Finally, request the scopes
"openid profile email" to get back user profile information in the ID token upon login. After you create the Authorize URL, you redirect the request there so the user can enter their credentials. The following code snippet is located on the
LoginController class of our sample.
After the user logs in the result will be received in our
CallbackController, either via a GET or a POST Http method. The request holds the call context that the library have previously set by generating the Authorize URL with the controller. When you pass it to the controller, you get back either a valid
Tokens instance or an Exception indicating what went wrong. In the case of a successful call, you need to create a new
TokenAuthentication instance with the ID Token and set it to the
SecurityContextHolder. You can modify this class to accept an Access Token as well, but this is not covered in this tutorial. If an exception is raised instead, you need to clear any existing Authentication from the
Display the Home Page
When the user visits the home page, it should display whether they are logged in or not. We can then take advantage of the Thymeleaf Spring Security integration to conditionally render content based on the authentication status.
HomeController checks if there is an existing
TokenAuthentication on the request, and sets the user's profile data on the
Model for the view to use:
navbar.html Thymeleaf fragment, we use the
sec:authorize tag to check if the user is authenticated. If they are authenticated, we display the profile picture and the main menu. If they are not authenticated, a Login button is displayed:
Display the Profile Page
Now that the user is authenticated (the tokens exists), the framework will allow them to access our protected resources. In the
ProfileController we get the
Authentication object, then set the profile information on the
Model for use by the view:
profile.html, we don't need to check for authentication status, since we've protected this resource using Spring Security. We simply use the
profile attribute sent by
ProfileController to render information about the authenticated user:
To properly handle logout, we need to clear the session and log the user out of Auth0. This is handled in the
LogoutController of our sample application.
First, we clear the session by calling
request.getSession().invalidate(). We then construct the logout URL, being sure to include the
returnTo query parameter, which is where the user will be redirected to after logging out. Finally, we redirect the response to our logout URL.
Run the Sample
To build an run the project, use the command:
Or if you are using Windows:
Point your browser to http://localhost:3000. Follow the Log In link to log in or sign up to your Auth0 tenant.
Upon successful login or signup, you will see the user's profile picture and a drop-down menu where the Log In link was. You can then view the user's profile page by clicking the Profile link.
Log out by clicking the Logout link in the drop-down menu. To verify that the profile page is restricted to authenticated users, point your browser to http://localhost:3000/profile, and note how you are directed to the login page.